福彩500走势图

2020年02月21日 星期五
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中国矿业报订阅

石油工业演进纪略

2019-5-10 9:52:22 来源:中国矿业报 作者:综合整理/曹明

福彩500走势图1859NIAN8YUE27RI,ZAIMEIGUOBINXIFANIYAZHOUKAOJINTAITESIWEIERCHENGDESHIYOUXIPANG,AIDEWEN·DELEIKE(Edwin Drake)ZUANDEYIKOUZHAOYOUJINGYONGCHULEYOULIU。SHIJIESHIYOUGONGYEYOUCIFADUAN。

早期石油利用

JIQIANNIANQIAN,RENLEIJIUYIJINGFAXIANSHIYOUHETIANRANQI,BINGJIAYILIYONG。CONGXIANCUNDESHILIAOLAIKAN,JIQIANNIANQIAN,RENLEIJIUYIJINGLUXUFAXIANLECHULUZAIDIMIANDEHUOMIAOHEQIMIAO。ZAOZAIGONGYUANQIAN5SHIJIZHIQIAN,GUBOSI(JINYILANG)DEBAIHUOJIAO,YIJINGLIYONGSHIYOULAIRANSHAO“SHENHUO”,DAOGONGYUANQIAN5SHIJISHI,KAISHIYONGZUOHUOGONGDEWUQI。GONGYUAN7SHIJI,XILAYIXULIYAGONGJIANGJIALINIKESIJIANGZIJIFAMINGDE“XILAHUO”DAIDAOBAIZHANTINGDIGUOSHOUDOUJUNSHITANDINGBAO,ZHEIZHONG“MIMIWUQI”YONGTEZHIGUANZIPENSHE,PENSHESHIBANYOUNONGYANHEJUDASHENGXIANG,GENGNENGFUZHEZAICHUANTI、CHUANFANHERENSHENSHANGRANSHAO,DUIDIRENCHUANZHI、SHIBINGSHASHANGLIJUDA。CIWAI,SHIYOUHAIYONGLAIJIANZAOFANGZI,YINDUHELIUYUGUDAILIQINGYUSHI、LIANGHELIUYUDESUMEIERLIQINGDIANTANG,SHIZUIZAOYONGSHIYOUFUCHANPINJIANCHENGDEJIANZHU。GONGYUAN8SHIJI,ALABODIGUODEXINDOUBAGEDA,QUANBUJIEDAODOUYOUBOYOUPUCHENG,ZHEISHISHIJIESHANGDIYIZUO“BOYOUMALUHUA”DECHENGSHI。

ERZAIZHONGGUO,ZAOZAIGONGYUANQIAN3SHIJI,SICHUANYIJINGZUANJINGYINTIANRANQIAOYAN,ZHEIYIJIZAIBIAOMING,ZHONGGUOSHISHIJIESHANGZUIZAOBAITUOZHISHILIYONGZIRANYILIUCHUDESHIYOU、TIANRANQI,ERKAISHIZIJUEDIZUANJINGKAIFALIYONGTIANRANQIDEGUOJIA。CHUZHONGGUOZHIWAI,EGUOZAI18SHIJICHUQIKAISHIZAIBAKUFUJINCHENGPIZAOJINGCAIYOU,MIANDIANZAI1735NIANQIANHOUYEYIYOU300LAIKOURENGONGZAOCHENGDECAIYOUJING。DAOLE18SHIJIZHONGQI,FAGUOYEKAISHIDAJINGKAIFAPEIXIEERBULONGYOUTIANLE。

DANSHIZHEIYISHIQIDUISHIYOU、TIANRANQIDEKAIFALIYONGGUIMOJIAOXIAO,JUXIANDIQUYEJIAOWEIXIAZHAI。ERQIECISHIDEZUANJINGFANGSHISHIYUANSHIDE,ZHUYAOKAOSHOUGONGWAZAOERBUSHIJIQI。ZAIJIASHANGZHEIYISHIQIDECAIYOUFANGSHIZHUYAOSHIZIRANYILIU,HUOZHESHIRENGONGTILAOHEPIEQU,ZHEIYIQIEDOUHERUJINDEGONGYEHUAKAICAIYOUHENDADEQUBIE,YINCINANYIXINGCHENGCHANYE。

福彩500走势图ZHIDAO19SHIJI50NIANDAI,SHIYOUDEFAZHANCAIYOULEYIGETUPO。CISHI,OUZHOU、BEIMEIYIJINGKEYIBAYUANYOUTONGGUOZHENGLIUTILIANCHENGDENGYONGMEIYOU,ZHEIJIAOZHICHUANTONGDELAZHUHEHAIBAOYOU,ZIRANSHIYIDAJINBU,SUOYIDENGYONGMEIYOUSHIFENCHANGXIAO。LIANYOUSHANGRENKAISHISICHUSHOUGOUYUANYOU。

福彩500走势图ERMEIGUOBINXIFANIYAWAITAITESIWEIERFUJINYOUYITIAOXIAOHE,HEBIANYOUYIXILIEYOUMIAO,YINCIHEMIANSHANGCHANGCHANGPIAOZHEYUANYOU。RENMENJIANGZHEITIAOHELIUCHENGWEISHIYOUXI,ZAIZHEILICONGSHUIMIANSHANGPIEQUYUANYOU,HUOZHEWAKENGZHAOYOU。ERBUYUANCHUDETALANTUNYANKUANG,LIUCHULESHIYOU。SHOUCHUANGZHENGLIUFUDESAIMOUER·JIER,JIUSHIYONGTALANTUNYANJINGCHULAIDEYUANYOU,JIAGONGCHENGDENGYONGMEIYOUCHUSHOU。

石油公司成立

SHIJIEDIYIJIASHIYOUGONGSI——BINXIFANIYAYANSHIYOUGONGSI,JIUCHENGLIYUSHIYOUXIFUJIN,HOULAI“TUOTAI”WEIYIKANTANHEKAICAISHIYOUWEIZHUYAOYEWUDESAINIKASHIYOUGONGSI。

1851NIAN,YIGEMINGJIAOFULANGXISI·BULUER(Frances Brewer)DEYISHENGHUIDAOLEWEIYUTAITESIWEIERDELAOJIA,DANGSHITADEFUQINKAILEYIJIAMUCAIJIAGONGCHANG,WEIZHIZHENGZAISHIYOUXIFUJIN。FULANGXISIZIXIKAOCHALESHIYOUXIDEYOUMIAO,RENWEIYOULIKETU,YUSHITAGUYONGYIMINGDANGDIDENONGMINZAIYOUMIAOFUJINWALEYIXIETUKENGHEGOU,YIBIANBAZIRANYICHULAIDEYUANYOUJIAYIHUIJI。JIUZHEIYANG,DAO1851NIANDI,FULANGXISIYIGONGCAIJILE1095JIALUNYUANYOU。ZHEIXIEYOUBEITAGONGJITAFUQINDEMUCAICHANG,YONGYIDIANDENGHERUNHUAMUCAIJIQI。

福彩500走势图JIEXIALAIFULANGXISIHUA5000MEIYUANMAIXIALEYIGENONGCHANG,DASUANKUODASHENGCHAN。DANGSHIZHUYAODESHIYOUQUAN——YOUMIAODOUZAIZHEILI。1854NIAN,FULANGXISIHEHEHUORENQIAONASEN·AIFULESI(Jonathan Everles)JIQIAOZHI·BISIER(George Bissell)YIQICHUANGBANLENIUYUEBINXIFANIYAYANSHIYOUGONGSI(Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company),ZHEISHIMEIGUONAIZHISHIJIEDIYIJIASHIYOUGONGSI。1855NIAN,GAIGONGSIANZHAOKANGNIEDIGEZHOUDEFALVGAIZUCHENGWEIGUFENGONGSI,BINGGAIMINGWEIKANGNIEDIGEBINXIFANIYAYANSHIYOUGONGSI,ZIBEN30WANMEIYUAN,XIBADENONGCHANGGUIZHEIJIAGONGSISUOYOU,NIUYUEBINXIFANIYAYANSHIYOUGONGSIBAOLIUKONGZHIGUFEN。DANSHIGONGSIDEFAZHANBINGBUYIFANFENGSHUN,CIHOUJIJINGZHANZHUAN,XIBADENONGCHANGLUODAOLEGUDONGZHIYIDEJIEMUSHI·TANGSEN(James Townsend)SHOULI。YEZHENGSHIZHEIGEREN,JIANGAIDEWEN·DELEIKEDAIJINLEGONGSI。

福彩500走势图TANGSENHENIUHEIWENDENEIXIETOUZIJIAJUEDINGLINGQILUZAO,LONGDUANDANGDIDESHIYOUJINGYING。1858NIAN3YUE23RI,TAMENCHENGLILESAINIKASHIYOUGONGSI(Seneca Oil Co.)。AIDEWEN·DELEIKE(Edwin Drake)CHENGWEIGONGSIDEYIMINGGUDONG,ERQIESHIGONGSIZHUTAITESIWEIERDEZONGDAILI。

福彩500走势图AIDEWEN·DELEIKEZHIYOUPUTONGZHONGXUEDEWENPING,TANIANQINGSHICENGJINGZAINIUYUEHEWEIERMENGDENONGCHANGLIZUONONGGONGWEICHISHENGCUN。19SUISHI,TAJUEDINGLIKAIJIADAOXIBUPENGPENGYUNQI。1849NIAN,DELEIKECHENGWEIYIMINGTIELULIECHEYUAN。DAN1857NIAN,YICHANGBINGSHITALIKAILETIELU。DANGSHITADEQIZIYEYIJINGQUSHI,TAGUSHENYIRENDAIZAIYIJIALVGUANDESHIHOU,YUJIANLETANGSEN。TANGSENXIANGTAJIESHAOLESAINIKASHIYOUGONGSIDEQINGKUANG,DELEIKEXINRANTONGYIJIARUGONGSI,BINGBASHENSHANGJINYOUDE200YUANQIANTOUZIDAOZHEILI。

福彩500走势图YUSHIDELEIKEJIUGENZHETANGSENLAIDAOLENIUHEIWENDESAINIKASHIYOUGONGSI,BINGBEIWEIRENWEIZHUTAITESIWEIERDEZONGDAILI,NIANXIN1000MEIYUAN,NEISHIDETACONGLAIMEIYOUNAGUOZHEIMEGAODEGONGZI。1858NIAN5YUE,DELEIKEDAODATAITESIWEIER。GONGSIGUYIWANGTAZHUDELVGUANJITAFAQUYIFENGXIN,XINFENGSHANGSHUMINGWEI“DELEIKESHANGXIAO”。ZHEIYIXIA,RENMENKAISHIBADELEIKECHENGWEI“SHANGXIAO”。BUKEFOUREN,ZHEIDUIYUDAKAIJUMIANSHIYOUHAOCHUDE。

首口油井诞生

福彩500走势图DELEIKEYAOZUODEDIYIJIANSHIJIUSHIQUDEKENENGCHUYOUDENEIKUAIDIDESUOYOUQUAN,ZHEIXIANGRENWUTAHENKUAIJIUWANCHENGLE。TAHUIDAONIUHEIWEN,ZHUNBEIZHESHOUKAISHIZUANYOU,ZHEIWUYISHIYIXIANGGENGWEIJIANJUDERENWU。TAHOULAISHUO:“WORENDINGKEYIXIANGZUANYANJINGNEIYANGDEDAODALIANGDESHIYOU,WOHAIRENDINGZHEIJIANSHIYAOYOUWOLAIWANCHENG。DANSHIWOTONGBIERENTANQIZHEIJIANSHISHI,MEIYOUYIGERENTONGYI,TAMENDOUSHUOSHIYOUSHICONGDAMEITIANLISHENCHULAIDE。”

福彩500走势图DELEIKEMEIYOUYINWEIBIERENDEHUAERDONGYAO。1858NIANCHUN,DELEIKEZAILITAITESIWEIERLIANGYINGLIDEDIFANGKAISHIXINGDONG。NEILIDIXIAYOUYIGEYOUQUAN,MEITIANKEYONGCHUANTONGFANGFASHOUJI3-6JIALUNYOU。ZAIHUIDAOTAITESIWEIERJIGEYUEHOU,TAXIEXINJITANGSENSHUO:“WOBUZAICHANGSHISHOUGONGWAKUANG,YINWEIWOXIANGXINZUANJINGXIANRANZUIBIANYI。”RANHOUTAYAOQIUDUIFANGJITAHUIQIAN,YINWEI“ZHEILISHIFENQUEFAZIJIN”。

福彩500走势图ZAITUOYANLEHAOJICIHOU,TANGSENJITAHUICHU1000MEIYUAN。DELEIKEDASUANYONGZHEIBIQIANGUYONGZUANJINGGONG。DANSHITAYAOQIUMEIHUA1MEIYUAN,JIUWANCHENG1YINGCHIJINDU,ZUIZAOZHAOLAIDEZUANJINGGONGYAOMEGANCUIBUJIAN,YAOMEYANGGAOZHEZOUDIAOLE。DELEIKEZAITAITESIWEIERDEDIYINIANYISHIWUCHENG,ERHANLENGDEDONGTIANYOUYAODAOLE,YUSHITAQUANLIANZHUANGQUDONGZUANTOUDEZHENGQIJI。ERZAINIUHEIWEN,TOUZIZHEMENYOUXINRUFENDIDENGDAIZHE。

1859NIANCHUNTIAN,DELEIKEZHAOLEYIGEMINGJIAOWEILIAN·SHIMISIDETIEJIANG,HETADELIANGGEERZIYIQICHONGDANGZUANJINGGONG。ZHEIJIGERENKAISHIDAJINGJIA,JIANGSHEBEIZHUANGPEIQILAI。TAMENZHUNBEIYAOZUANJINGZHIDIXIAJIBAIYINGCHI。GONGCHENGJINXINGDEHENMAN,ERNIUHEIWENDETOUZIRENYUELAIYUEWEIMEIYOUJINZHANERJIAOZAOBUAN。ZUIHOU,GONGSIFAQIRENZHONGZHIYOUTANGSENHAIDUIZHEIXIANGJIHUABAOYOUXINXIN。ZHEIXIANGSHIYEDEQIANHUAGUANGHOU,TAKAISHIZITAOYAOBAOFUZHANGDAN。RANER,1859NIAN8YUEDI,ZAIWUKENAIHEZHIXIA,TAJIDELEIKEJIQUZUIHOUYIBIQIAN,YAOQIUTAFUQINGZHANGDAN,HUINIUHEIWEN。

1859NIAN8YUE27RIXIAWU,ZUANTOUZAI69YINGCHIDEDIFANGLUORUYITIAOFENGXI,YOUHUAJINQU6YINGCUN,ZHEISHIYIJINGDAOLESHOUGONGSHIJIAN。DIERTIAN,SHIMISIQUKANNEIKOUJING,FAXIANSHUIDEBIAOMIANPIAOFUZHEHEISEYETI,YUSHITAYONGSHUIGUANLAOSHANGLAIYIXIE。DANGTAXIKANZHEIXIENONGCHOUDEYETISHI,BUJINJIDONGWANFEN。DENGDAODELEIKEDAOGONGDISHI,FAXIANSHIMISIHETADEERZIBAYUTONG、LIANPEN、JIUTONGLIMIANQUANBUZHUANGMANLESHIYOU。DELEIKEZHUANGSHANGYIJIASHOUDONGBENG,KAISHICHOUQISHIYOULAI。JIUZAINEITIAN,TASHOUDAOLETANGSENDEHUIPIAOHEYAOTASHOUTANDEMINGLING。YAOSHIYIZHOUYIQIANNADAOZHEIBIQIAN,TAHUIZHAOZHEQUZUO,KEXIANZAIBUHUILE。DELEIKEDEJIANCHIZHONGYUYOULESHOUHUO。BUZAOBUWAN,TAZHAODAOLESHIYOU。SHIYOUXILIANGANDEZHUANGJIARENZHONGJINTAITESIWEIER,GAOSHENGHANDAO:“BEIFANGLAODAZHESHIYOULE。”ZHEIYIXIAOXIXIANGSHIYEHUOBANCHUANKAI,YINQILEYICHANGMAIDIDAJINGZHAOYOUDELANGCHAO。XIAOZHENTAITESIWEIERDERENKOUYIYEZHIJIANCHENGBEIZENGZHANG,TUDIDEJIAGEZHIXIANSHANGSHENG。

工业体系形成

福彩500走势图ZUANTANDECHENGGONGBINGBUYIDINGBAOZHENGZHUANQIAN,ERSHIYIWEIZHEXINDEWENTI:DUIZHEGUNGUNERLAIDESHIYOU,DELEIKEHESHIMISIGAIZENMEBAN?TAMENBADANGDISUONENGZHAODAODESUOYOUJIUTONGDOUSOUJILAI,ZHUANGSHANGYOU,SUIHOUYOUZAOLEHAOJIGEDAMUTONG,RANHOUYONGMACHETUOYUN。HENKUAI,TIELUZHUANYONGXIANXIULEJINLAI。YITAITIELUPINGBANCHESHANGANLIANGGELISHIDAMUTONG。1868NIAN,JIDELEIKEJINGTOUCHANHOUBUDAO10NIAN,YIJINGCHUXIANLETIEZHIDEWOSHIYOUGUANCHE,MEIGUANRONGLIANG100TONG(YUE13.6DUN)。

YONGMACHEBAYOUYUNWANGHUOCHEZHANDECHENGBENHENGAO,MEITONGJIHUYAOHUAYUNFEI2.5MEIYUAN~5MEIYUAN,YUSHISAMOUER·SAIKEERYU1865NIANZAIZHEILIPUSHELESHIJIESHANGDIYITIAOSHUYOUGUANXIAN,ZHEITIAOGUANXIANCAIYONGSHUTIEGUAN,BINGYONGLUOWENLIANJIE,GUANJING2YINGCUN,QUANZHANG8QIANMI,SHOUZHANYONGZHENGQIJIDAIDONGDEBENGYASONG,RISHUYOULIANGDA800TONG(YUE40000DUN/NIAN),MEITONGYOUYUNJIACAI1MEIYUAN,YUSHI,ZHEILIHENKUAIBUMANLEDUANCHENGSHUYOUGUANXIAN,BAYOUSHUSONGDAOCHEZHAN。1869NIAN,YEJIDELEIKEJINGTOUCHAN10ZHOUNIANDESHIHOU,BINXIFANIYAZHOUJIANCHENGLEDIYITIAOZHANGSHUGUANXIAN,CONGKELIWEIERSHUDAOWEILIANGANGZHUANGCHUAN,GUANJING6YINGCUN,QUANZHANG175QIANMI,CHUANYUESHANQU,RISHUYOUNENGLIDA1WANTONG(YUE50WANDUN/NIAN)。

福彩500走势图OUZHOUSHIYOUXIWANGDESHICHANG。1861NIAN,“YILISHABAI·WATE”HAOFANCHUANYUNLE5TONG(YUE0.68DUN)MEIYOUDAOLUNDUN。CHUANSHUO,CHUANZHUDANXINSHUISHOUMENBUGAN,GUYIBATAMENGUANZUI,TAMENXILIHUTUDIBAMEIYOUYUNDAOLEYINGGUO。ZHEIZHONGDENGYONGMEIYOUYITOUFANGSHICHANGMASHANGHENSHOUHUANYING。OUZHOUCHENGWEIMEIGUOMEIYOUDEZHUYAOSHICHANG。1864NIANMEIGUOSHUWANGOUZHOUDESHIYOUDA73.2WANTONG(YUE10WANDUN)。1869NIAN,DIYISOUMUZHIYOULUN“CHAERSI”HAOZHUANGLE59ZHITIEZHIYOUGUAN,YUNLE714DUNSHIYOUKUAGUODAXIYANG。1872NIAN,DIYISOUZHENGQIDONGLIDEYOULUN“WADELAN”HAOTOURULEYUNYING,ZAIYUNNENGLIWEI2748DUN。DAO1885NIAN,TOURUYUANYANGYUNYOUDELUNCHUANYIDA1000SOUYISHANG。

福彩500走势图YIDAPILIANYOUCHANGRUYUHOUCHUNSUNBANZAIZHEIYIDAIXINGQI。ZHEIYANG,ZIDELEIKEJINGCHUYOUHOUBUGUO10LAINIANSHIJIAN,YIGECONGJIXIEZUANJINGDAOCAIYOU,CONGJISHUDAOZHANGJULIYUNSHU,ZHIDAOJIAGONGCHENGCHANPINDESHIYOUGONGYETIXIXINGCHENGBINGFAZHANQILAILE。

SUOYI,RENMENBA1859NIAN8YUE27RICHENGWEIJINDAISHIYOUGONGYEDEDANSHENGRI。

ZHIYUDELEIKE,SHIQINGDEJIEJUYUANFEIMEIMIAO。TAGAIDANGSHIYOUSHOUGOUSHANG,HOULAIYOUCHENGLEHUAERJIEYIJIAZHUANYINGSHIYOUGUPIAODEGONGSIDEHEHUOREN。TABUSHANYUZHANQIANGUHOU,BUSHIGEHAOSHANGREN,ZAISHANGCHANGZHONGSHIJISHANGSHIGEDUTUSHIDERENWU。DAO1866NIAN,TASHENWUFENWEN,HOULAISHISHENTIYIZHIBUHAO,BAOSHOUBINGTONGHEPINQIONGDEJIANAO。ZUIHOU,BINXIFANIYAZHOUYOUYUTADEGONGXIANSHOUYUTAYIXIAOBIZHONGSHENGYANGLAOJIN。ZHEIYANG,ZAITADEYOUSHENGZHINIAN,SUIRANSHENTIZHUANGKUANGMEIYOUGAISHAN,JINGJIKUNJINGQUEYOUSUOHUANJIE。1901NIAN,TADEYITIQIANZANGYUTAITESIWEIER,BINGQIEJIANLILEJINIANBEI。

福彩500走势图ZAIDELEIKEJINGDEJIUZHIJIANLILE“DELEIKEJINGJINIANGUAN”。SHIRENJIANGYONGYUANJIZHUZHEIWEISHIJIESHIYOUGONGYEDEKAICHUANGZHE。□

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